Noun Cases And Formation Rules of Possessive Case

Hello friends ! Today we are going to study in detail about Noun Cases And Formation Rules of Possessive Case. We will discuss their various rules with examples.

Possessive case is very important from competitive examinations point of view. So today we will do a detailed study about this Case and also try to understand its Formation Rules one by one :

What is Case and its Types

Friends! Case means : Form of a noun or pronoun in a sentence. These Cases are mainly of three types which are as follows :

  1. Nominative Case
  2. Objective Case
  3. Possessive Case

1. Nominative Case :

When a noun or pronoun is the subject of a verb in a sentence, it is called the nominative case. like :

  • Anjali cooks food in the Kitchen.
  • He is playing Football.

— Here in the first sentence the nominative of the verb – Cook is “Anjali” while in the second sentence the subject of the verb – play is “He“.

It is very easy to find out the subject in a sentence. Because any sentence starts with the subject. However, if there is any problem in locating the subject, then you put the “Who” before the verb and the answer is the Subject. Such as :

  • Who cooks food in the kitchen. — Anjali.

2. Objective Case :

When a noun or pronoun is the object of a verb in a sentence, it is called the Objective Case. like :

  • Ram eats a mango.

— In this sentence, “mango” is object of the verb – eat. To find object in the sentence, then you put the “What” and The answer you get is the Object. Such as :

  • Ram eats a what. — mango.

3. Possessive Case :

When a noun or pronoun in a sentence denotes authority or ownership, it is called Possessive Case. It is also called Genitive Case. Such as :

  • Radha’s Mother gives me a book.

— Mother is related to Radha in this sentence. To find out, then you put the “Whose” and The answer you get is the Possessive Case. Such as :

  • Whose Mother gives me a book. — Radha’s.

Formation Rules of Possessive Case

Whenever we make a possessive case of a living noun, we use possessive sign (‘s or s’) for it.
But if the noun is inanimate or lifeless then it uses preposition “of”.

Rule : 1.

The Possessive Case is formed by adding possessive sign (‘s) to the Singular Noun. like :

  • The boy’s book
  • Ram’s Pen

Rule : 2.

If the noun is plural and has “s” at its end, only the apostrophe (‘) is placed at the end of that noun to form the possessive case. like :

  • Boys’ book
  • Girls’ hostel

Rule : 3.

But if the noun is plural but does not have “s” at the end, then possessive sign (‘s) is used to make a possessive case. like :

  • Men’s songs
  • Children’s clothes

Rule : 4.

When the singular Noun ends with “s” or “ce” and is followed by “sake”, then Possessive case is formed by adding only an Apostrophe (‘). like :

  • For goodness’ sake
  • For Justice’s sake

Rule : 5.

Joint Possession : When there are two or more nouns in a sentence and their joint authority or possession is to be shown, then only the possessive sign (‘s) is added to the last noun. like :

  • This is Ram, Laxman and Sita’s House.

— This sentence means that the house is the only one on which Ram, Laxman and Sita all have the right or joint right.

Rule : 6.

Separate Possession : But if a sentence has two or more nouns and they have different rights, then the possessive sign (‘s) is applied to each noun. like :

  • This is Ram’s and Sita’s Books.

Rule : 7.

When a compound noun is made possessive case, then the possessive sign (‘s) is applied to the last word. like :

  • My Sister-in-law’s office.
  • The Government of India’s order.

Rule : 8.

The possessive sign (‘s) is also used to make a Possessive Case of the following structures :

With the names of Dignified Objects :

  • Earth’s gravity
  • Sun’s rays
  • Heaven’s will

With the names of Personified Objects :

  • Nature’s laws
  • Death’s door
  • Fortune’s favour

With some common phrases :

  • a lion’s share
  • a boat’s crew
  • at stone’s throw

With the nouns denoting time, weight, distance, value and space etc.

a week’s leaveFive pound’s weighta mile’s lengthTwo lakh’s wortha razor’s ege
a month’s endTwo pound’s weighta yard’s distanceFive lakh’s wortha needle’s point

Rule : 9.

The possessive sign (‘s) is also used with the abbreviated form of words. like :

  • The PM’s speech
  • The CM’s secretary

Rule : 10.

Never use the “double possessive“. like :

Krishna’s brother’s wife is cooking food.The wife of Krishna’s brother is cooking food.

— In this sentence, possessive sign (‘s) is applied to both Krishna and Brother which is totally wrong. The double possessive is never used. Here “The wife of Krishna’s brother” should be used instead of “Krishna’s brother’s wife.

Here you should keep in mind that whenever possessive sign (‘s) is replaced with “of”.
So, we must use article – the before the word that comes before “of”. like :

Tulsi’s Ramayan —The Ramayan of Tulsi.
The Minister’s Daughter — The Daughter of the Minister.

Rule : 11.

The possessive case can be formed by adding possessive sign (‘s) with the following pronouns also :

Anyone Anybody
No one Nobody

But if ‘else’ is used at the end of these words, then possessive sign (‘s) is followed by else. like :

  • Somebody else’
  • Anybody else’

Rule : 12.

When two nouns are used after “one of” in a sentence and their right or ownership is to be mentioned, “of” is used in place of possessive sign (‘s). like :

One of my friends’ wives is singing a song.The wife of one of my friends is singing a song.

Rule : 13.

The possessive case of non-living objects is always formed by adding “of”. like :

book’s pagesThe Pages of the book
tree’s leavesThe leaves of the tree

Some non living nouns such as train, plane, ship, boat etc. are words
with which possessive sign (‘s) is used. for example :

  • The train’s arrival
  • The Plane’s departure
  • The Ship’s bell
  • The Boat’s crew

Rule : 14.

When a phrase or clause qualifies a possessive noun, its possessive case is formed by putting “of”. like :

I read Tulsi’s Ramayan who was a great writer.I read the Ramayan of Tulsi who was a great writer.

— In this sentence, “Who was a great writer” is a clause which qualifies Tulsi and not the Ramayan. So it is perfectly appropriate to use “of” here.

Rule : 15.

For bigger animals, possessive sign (‘s) is added while for small animals and insects, “of” is added to form possessive case. like :

Bigger animalsSmall animals
Lion’s shareWings of a butterfly
Elephant’s trunkSting of a scorpion

Rule : 16.

Never use apostrophe (‘) with mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs, its etc. Although all these words show possession.

Thus friends! Today we learned about Noun Cases And Formation Rules of Possessive Case. This is a very simple topic. But due to lack of correct information, it can also cause trouble for you. Therefore, we have told you the important rules of its formation. So that you do not make any mistake in competitive exams.

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